(Translated by Margaret Milaszewicz and published in Pathways & Passages, Fall 1999, Volume 16, Number 1)
Jaworzec, 1580; Ja Vorzec 1589, 1701, XIX and XX century; Ukrainian [Yavirets]. The name is derived from Polish jawor and Old Church Slavonic which both mean «sycamore tree.»
A private village established under Vallachian jurisdiction before the year 1580 on the holdings of the Sobieski family that at that time belonged to the Kmita family, Jaworzec originated on the small river Wetlinka. Its was situated only on the right or eastern bank, which is an extraordinary situation in the Polish Carpathians. It is presumed that at that time the villages Kalnica (1567), Luh, and Zawoj (1552) already existed and were located on both sides of the river. The villages were established due to successive colonization of the Hoczewka, Solinka, and Wetlinka valleys. On the other hand the property of the Kmita family was located in the San valley, which in this region was separated from the neighboring estates by the Poloniny ridge. But the Kmita family tried to expand their estates by every means possible. Piotr Kmita, who was a Grand Marshal of the Crown and Voivode of Krakow, pursued expansion of his holdings. He was closely connected with the king and did not take any consideration of his neighbors. He took possession of Sianki, located on royal property, and his illegal actions drove the Ternowski family from land located on the river San, below Sianki. It appears that the establishment of the village of Smerek (sometime before 1529) was also illegal.
Piotr Kmita died in 1553, but his widow Barbara nee Herburt continued his plans for expansion. The founding of Jaworzec and Wetlina, which took place before 1580, was just the final stage of her husband's plans. But the Bal family [another prominent landholding family in the region] did not allow themselves to be evicted completely from the Wetlinka. They managed to keep property on its left (west) bank, starting at Kalnica. After Barbara's death in 1580 the village was divided between Stanislaw and Erazm Herbut. At the turn of the 17th century the village became part of the estates of the Boguski family.
In addition to a unique location (on only one side of a waterway), Jaworzec also had very unusually situated structures. The buildings were divided into several sections, which is quite exceptional for villages in the Bieszczady mountain region. The majority of the buildings, along with an Orthodox church, lay on the Wetlinka. In addition Jaworzec also had three farmsteads, Belej, Kobylskie, and Bercz (or Berczka). The first was in the northern part of the village, at the same altitude as Zawoj. Kobylskie was located on the brook of that name, which flowed from Wysokie Berdo to the Wetlinka. The farmstead of Berehy was on a slope over the Wetlinka, with a beautiful view overlooking the buildings of the village of Kalnica.
Very interesting is the concentration in this region of names relating to defensive or guardian functions. The name «Jaworzec» has a similar meaning, because in the Indo-European culture the sycamore tree is regarded as a protection again evil forces. The word jawor must be very old. Greeks planted sycamore trees by the roads to protect travelers, and Persians planted sycamores around their cities to protect themselves from plague. Slavs, who originally called this tree aworow dab, built doors from sycamore wood in an attempt to protect their houses against evil forces, or placed over windows or entry doors wreaths made of leaves from the sycamore tree. Such wreaths were also hung on the rafters of buildings under construction. A coffin made of sycamore wood repelled evil spirits from a dead person.
Also located in Jaworzec are the farmsteads of Kobylskie and Berehy. The latter is located on a hill, making it an excellent spot from which to observe roads leading from the south. In the Ukrainian language berebty, means «to guard, protect, watch.» The noun kobylenie means «palisade,» a barrier made of sharpened tree trunks positioned so as to face an oncoming enemy; likewise kobylina can be defined as a tree trunk with branches trimmed short, used to unblock passages. Kobylskie is located in direct proximity to the Wetlinka, in a place called Skala where the road leads into the narrow part of the valley. One can surmise that its inhabitants were obligated to close the road in this place during invasions from the Carpathian Mountains.
The farmstead of Belej, where the manor existed, was also called Rynek (Rynok), and is identified by some researchers as having a castle or defensive fortifications. The space between the castle and the Wetlinka was called the Wartowyna. Leading from here is a ridge, or to be more precise, a long summit clearing called Putna, and the crossing of the road leading from Tworylne is called Worotna. In the vicinity north of Wartowyna, in the village of Zawoj, is a hill with a very beautiful view, called Warta. The locations of these settlements were carefully planned for defensive purposes. Jaworzec was located in the southernmost point of the manor that belonged to the Kmita family. If there was an invasion from the Carpathians directed toward the Wetlinka valley, the inhabitants of the farmstead of Berehy would see it first. They would warn the inhabitants of Kobylskie, who would then block the roads leading north near Skalka. The prince, whose first responsibility was to stand armed when needed, and who lived in the fortified castle in the place called Belej, would strengthen the guards in Wartowyna. Perhaps the trail here was also blocked, as this site is very desirable for this purpose. In Watra they would light signal fires that could be seen in the San valley, warning the inhabitants of those villages of impending danger. At this time the only road connecting Javorzec with Tvvorylne was one that led through thc clearing at Putna and the place called Worotna.
The families who lived in Berehy included those of Berezanski, Muszynski, and Zapotocki, who frequently intermarried. These families belonged to the noble class.
In the summer of 1831, during the cholera epidemic, 30 people died in one month. In 1852 the main section of Jaworzec had 35 houses; Kobylskie had 17 houses, and Berehy 8. In 1868 the village's surface area comprised 2,819 morgs [a unit of surface measure, 1 morg = 5,600 square meters], of which 1,122 were forests. Peasant-owned land consisted of 425.3 hectares of farmland, 216.4 of meadows and gardens, 160 of pastureland, and 19.6 of forest. In the l7th century the village belonged to the Romers. A hundred years later the owners were the Los family, who retained ownership of this estate until 1880. In 1891 ownership passed to the Society of Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul in Lwow.
After World War I the inhabitants built several houses and sheds for hay. Between the mountains of Siwarnia and Krysowa, the farmstead called Zahorody (in Polish «Zagrody») developed, which had three farms. The families of Michal Berezanski and of Teodor Kaczor lived in two of the houses. Almost at the top of the mountain called Siwarnia was located the farm of Jan Szotiak, which consisted of a house, one barn, and two stables. South of the barn was a hay-shed. Hay-sheds were also located about 1,300 meters southwest of the Kobylskie buildings, in Wysokie Berdo, a place called Pasiki Kobylanskie.
Several families of Gypsies lived in Jaworzec, by name Gorol, Huczko, and Nodzio. One of those was a family of musicians known on both sides of the Carpathians. Gypsies lived by the influx of Kobylskie brook into the Wetlina River. During the Holocaust Gypsies were exterminated as well as Jews. When a German detachment arrived in Jaworzec to take the Gypsies away, the Gypsy band went forward to meet them, playing the German national anthem; on hearing this, the leader of the German detachment decided to leave them unmolested. They survived the war, but were later murdered by Ukrainian nationalists.
Secret police sources indicate that in February, 1945, 1,200 Ukrainian nationalists were stationed in the villages of Jaworzec, Smerek, and Wetlina. In Smerek 30 carts stood in readiness. This data is suspect, however, because in reality the number was 180 guerillas. On May 8, 1945, partisans came to Jaworzec and demanded food from the village administrator: five cows, 500 kg. of potatoes, 200 kg. of rye, and 200 kg, of barley. During Operation Vistula [Akcja Wisla] between May 10th and 15th, 1947, 557 people were displaced from the village, and 78 from the Kobylskie farmstead. After this displacement there was nobody left in the village. Only some of the ruins of basements were left. Now the territory of Jaworzec, Luh and Zwvoj is administered by local officials in Smerek.
Owners of the village
To 1580 Barbara nee Herburt, widow of Piotr Kmita
1580 Katarzyna and Stanislaw Herbut (heirs of Barbara)
1589 Stanislaw and Erazm Herburt
1630 Andrzej Boguski
1663 Romer family
1790-1829 Count Franciszek Los, died 1829
1829-1854 Count Karol Los, son of Franciszek, died 1854
1854-1880 Count Bronislaw Los, son of Karol, died 1880
1880-1885 Karol and Urszula nee Los Golejowski*
1885-1891 Countess Golejowska (died 1891)**
1895-1939 Society of Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul, Lwow
*Karol Golejowski died in 1885. Urszula nee Los was the daughter of Karol and the sister of Bronislaw.
**Widow of Karol. No children.
Surnames of inhabitants (1888-1941)
Jaworzec: Bancowski, Beca, Buchwak, Buszowiecki, Czerwienski, Darianycz, Dziendzia, Dziurow, Fencyszyn, Gorzak, Hodowaniec, Huk, Jawornicki, Kaczur, Kalynycz, Kolesar, Kusznir, Litowczak, Makar, Nodzio, Ochnycz, Pohlo (Pohlar), Rusniak, Stolicia, Swystar, Szutiak, Zelinski, Zubal
Kobylskie: Berdzanski, Gorol, Halycz, Huczko (Hucka), Tworynski
Berehy: Berezanski, Dihun, Muszynski, Zapotocki
1871-1891 Tatiana Tymciow
1891- Stefania Berezanska
Number of People by Faith
Year Number Number Greek Catholic Roman Catholic Jewish
of Houses of Residents
1785 283 276 0 7
1869 67 450
1880 380 71
1910 483 1
1921 78 501 497
1945 569 569
1947 557 557
1995 1 2
Education and Culture
In a report dated 1790, the local pastor listed 19 children that, in his opinion, were able to attend school. Three of those children attended school on Lowro. In 1821 the existence of a parish school was noted. From 1847 through 1849 the following instructors taught the number of students indicated in parentheses: Pawel Kopcza (10), Jan Rusynko (8), Michal Brejan (11). In 1895 the school no longer existed. In the period between wars up to 1930 there was also no school.
3. Sacral Objects
Greek Orthodox Church
The Orthodox church of the Great Martyr Dymitr, made of wood, was built and consecrated in 1846. It was a two-storied building similar in structure to Roman Catholic churches. Its nave was 10.4 x 7.2 m., and had a little presbytery in the shape of a triangle (3.6 x 4.0 m.) and vestibule (3.4 x 4.3 m.). Over the vestibule rose a tower with two bells. The church was destroyed after 1947. Only sonic parts of the foundation and the concrete stairs leading to the Church from the west side remained.
Pastors and Administrators of Jaworzec Parish
1790-1793 Pastor Andrzej Bankowski
1826-1828 Pastor Gregorz Lewicki
1831-1837 Administrator Daniel Polanski
1842-1867 Pastor Jozef Wendzilowicz (born 1810, ordained 1835)
1867-1868 Pastor Aleksy Lazoryszczak (b. 1830, ord. 1862)
1875-1885 Administrator Hryhoryj Wojtowicz (b. 1807, ord. 1836)
1885-1887 Administrator Bazili Ustaniowski (parish in Smerek)
1888-1902 Pastor Wasylij Ochnycz (b. 1858, ord. 1884)
1902 Administrator H. Hasuriak (from Wetlina)
1902 Administrator Wolodymyr Kliuk
1902-1906 Pastor Sawa Lomnicki
1906-1907 Administrator Eugeniusz Sembratowicz
1907-1919 Pastor Lawrentyj Lewickyj (b. 1877, ord. 1902)
1919-1926 Administrator Omelan Czajkowski (b. 1889, ord. 1915)
1926 Administrator Miroslaw Ustianowski (parish in Smerek)
1926-1935 Administrator Makar Michajliw (13. 1892, ord. 1826)
1935-1936 Administrator Wolodymyr Hryhorowicz (b. 1907, ord. 1932)
1936-1944 Administrator Wolodymyr Werbowyj (b. 1893, ord. 1935)
The rectory buildings were located 120 m. northwest of the church. There was one wooden rectory and two wooden farm buildings in 1852. In 1888 a new parish priest, Wasylij Ochnycz, built a new rectory, also made of wood. During an official episcopal visitation in the years 1926 and 1927 it was determined that the rectory was in poor condition and the farm buildings were in average shape.
Income and Finances
From its own farmland the parish collected 1,055 zlotys, 36 krajcar [Kreutzers, an Austrian unit of currency] in 1879. From the religious fund the parish received 209 zl., 64. kr. Based on data from 1895, parish assets included: from Jaworzec, 70 morgs of farmland, 20 cords of beechwood, 10 tumbrels of dry twigs for fencing; from Luh, 10 morgs of farmland, 4 cords of wood; and from Zawoj, 10 morgs of farmland, 4 cords of wood. Profit was estimated at 46 zl., 62 kr.; interest from debts, 34 zl.; from savings accounts 6 zl.; 50 kr.; supplement from the government, 417 zl., 97 kr.; tax 17 zl., 79 kr.
That same year the psalmist's salary was 10 zl., 12 bushels of oats, 0.5 bushel of rye, and 2.5 bushels of potatoes.
In 1910 assets were a little different, and included, in Jaworzec: 70 morgs of farmland, 20 cords of beechwood. 10 tumbrels of dry twigs for fencing, and free pasturage in the manor's forest for 6 cows, 4 oxen, 2 horses, and 20 sheep; in Luh 36 morgs of farmland, 4 cords of wood; in Zawoj 14 morgs of farmland, 4 cords of wood. Profit was estimated at 94 zl., 61 kr.; interest from debts and from saving accounts came to 81 zl., 32 kr.; supplement from the government 1,085 zl., 68 kr.; tax 24 kr. The psalmist's salary was 2 corona from each home.
During the period between wars the Brotherhood of Sobriety was established. In 1928 it had 40 members.
Greek Catholic Chapel
The Greek Catholic chapel of St. Dymitr: the date of its erection is unknown, but it was in existence by 1852. At that time it was a rectangular wooden building measuring 12 x 6.2 m. It is interesting that the chapel had not even been mentioned in diocesan directories. The 1918 diocesan directory mentioned that Greek Catholic masses were being held in it. Later directories had no mention of it, but it is known to have existed in 1935, and was located in the cemetery, by the village road south of the Orthodox church. It no longer exists.
Orthodox church cemetery: in 1852 the cemetery had the shape of an irregular diamond (about 60 x 30 m) and an area of about 18 acres. Later it was enlarged, almost doubled in size, on the east side. Now it no longer has any tombstones. At one time it was enclosed with a little stone wall, but now only a few ruins remain. On the cemetery's borders, trees several decades old are growing. On the west side are parts of a defensive stone wall, two meters high and now in ruins. By this wall there were probably once steps leading to the church. On March 23, 1888, the Latin apostolic vicar Pawel Sieroslawski, from Polany near Czarna, died in Jaworzec, and was buried in this cemetery.
Cemetery by the Greek Catholic chapel: located on the defensive promontory, the cemetery is bordered on the south, west, and north by steep slopes. There is a road on the west that leads through the village, and its northern side is bordered by a stream. The cemetery is shaped like an irregular oval, with a lower northwestern section. Its area was about 7.5 acres. In 1852 on the southwest border of the cemetery there was a rectangular wooden building measuring 7.5 x 4.6 m. Now, on the cemetery's western border, stone foundations of a square building (2 x 2 m.) can be seen, probably ruins of a chapel. In the cemetery there are fallen tombstones made of sandstone and two broken crosses. In addition, fragments of the low stone wall that previously surrounded the cemetery are on the northern side. Trees 30-50 years old grow on the cemetery's borders.
Military cemetery: this dated from the time of World War I, 1914-1915. It was in the form of one large collective grave, located on the western slope of Bukowina, about 400 m. southwest of its summit. It was situated in a forest, about 100 m. west of the place where the forest's border forms a sharp angle.
Way-side Chapels and Crosses
A cross built in 1848 to commemorate the abolition of serfdom was located on a promontory in the fork of the Wetlinka and its western tributary, which traverses the village. This place was called Borozyszcze. The cross consists of two wrought-iron arms set on the top of a base made of sandstone. The broken top was repaired in the 1890's. This cross was built to protect the villages against the plague that took place in Galicia in the 1890's. On the base is an inscription written in the Russian language: «In memory of the abolition of serfdom, 3. 5. 1848.»
Earlier the cross was surrounded by a wrought-iron fence set in four bases of sandstone. The fence structure still existed during the 1880's, but by 1995 it had been destroyed, with only fragments remaining around the cross. In 1996 the cross was enclosed with a fence of wooden poles. Two ash trees grow behind the cross on the Southwest.
Larger Land Holdings
The manor's buildings were located 1.5 km. north of the closest buildings in Jaworzec. This land was located on a curve of the Wetlinka and was called Biala. The area was called Rynek (Rynok). In 1852 there was a rectangular manor made of wood, 23 x 8 m. The farmhouse buildings consisted of three wooden structures, The largest was 54.1 m. long and 9.2 m. wide. In addition to those three main structures, there were also four smaller wooden buildings. There was a small brook flowing into the Wetlinka located by the manor. In 1868 larger land holdings consisted of 801.1 hectares, composed of 61.6 hectares of farmland, meadows and gardens; 5.3 hectares of pastureland; and 626.1 hectares of forest. At the beginning of the 1870's there were two buildings occupied by three people. Nearly throughout the 19th century this estate was owned by three generations of the family of Count Los. They also owned Rajskie. In 1880 count Bronislaw Los died childless, and the estate was taken over by his sister Urszula, who used it as a dowry when she married Karol Golejowski. He also died childless, in 1885. Urszula Golejowska died in 1891 and gave the estate to the Society of Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul of Lwow. Later the Sisters built a convent in the Rajskie manor. The Jaworzec estate existed until 1914. In 1921 it was subdivided, and the buildings were destroyed after World War I.
Before the war the residential structures of Jaworzec were traditional wooden houses. The buildings' farm and residential sections were set under one roof. In general the roofs were four-sided and covered with dry grass. The walls were painted brown, with clay filling in the gaps and painted white. During the 30's there were a lot of chicken coops. Basements of stone were built under the houses, although sometimes they were built separately. Now all that remains are parts of ruins of the previous foundations and basements. About 150 m. west of the Orthodox church the ruins of one building with a big basement survive. One of them has long horizontal stone walls and is covered with large, flat slabs of stone. Nearby traces of another hut are visible.
Industry, Craft, Trade, and Service
There was a water mill parallel to the Kobylskie brook, 80 m. above its mouth from the Wetlinka brook. It was 150 m. long and was located in the mouth of the Wetlinka. Above the mill there was a pond measuring 3.5 acres. The mill was in existence as of 1852. In the last years of the 19th century it no longer functioned, but the building still remained.
There was also a mill located on the right side of the Wetlinka, in the area called Pod Skala, 1,100 m. south of the mouth of Kobylskie brook. It was built after 1914, and the water was brought from the main stream via a wooden trough. The mill had two wheels. In the years 1926-1939 its owner was M. Dymytrowicz. The mill building looked like a typical hut with dried grass. Inside it was divided into two parts: on the left from the entrance was the residential area, which consisted of one room and a bed-chamber; on the right was the mill area, one room with two stones.
The mill was catalogued in the third decade of the 20th century by W. Korzeniowicz and W. Swiatecki, members of an Architectural Commission. The catalogue was published in the Bulletin of History and Culture (number 1, VII, 1939), but it was mistakenly stated that the mill was located in Kalnica.
Forest ranger: Jan Zabazewski (1891).
Blacksmith: I. Huczko (1926).
A shelter was erected by the Polish Tourist Board in the years 1975-1976. It is made of wood, multi-leveled, with a high cement basement. It has 25 lodging places. It is located on the southern edge of a building that previously stood there, before 1947.
List OF Geographic Names
Bandzerewy-a field near Kobylskie
Bancowskich Hrun-a field listed on the map as Wysokie Berdo (968 m.) (22)
Berdo Kruchte -> Kruchte Berdo
Berclo Kuznie -> Kuznie Berdo
Berdo Makarowe -> Makarowe Berdo
Berdo Suche -> Suche Berdo
Bylyj-an old farm in the lower part of the village, on the Wetlinka
Borolo-right bank of the Wetlinka above the village
Borozyszcze-field with a cross
Bozywka-field on the Wetlinka in the lower part of the villages
Bukowyna-fields on Bukowina's southern slopes
Buznyky-field on the Wetlinka in the northern part of the village
Cupriw pole-near the old farmstead of Zahorody
Czerenyna-narrow field on the left side of the Tworylczyk slope
Czerenyna-field on the Wetlinka in the lower part of the village
Czerenyna-field on the southeast of Kobylskie
Czertiz-valley of the right tributary of Wetlinka on the upper end of the village
Dil Popiwskij -> Popiwskij Dil
Dolyna-a fragment of mountain pasture in the village of Smerek
Habkowa-meadow on the right slope of Tworylczyk
Horbok-field by the road to the farmstead of Zahorody
Hostynna-field to the north of Wysokie Berdo
Hrun Bankowskich -> Bankowskich Hrun
Hryzowa-field near Kobylskie
Hyr Jawerce-road north of the road to the farmstead at Zahorody
Hyr Szeroky-road to the farmstead of Zahorody via Szerokie fields
Kobylanskie Pasiki-field on the border between Kobylskie and Kindrat
Kobylyny-forest and field in the upper part of the Kobylskie valley
Konysbert-field on the Southern slope of Siwarnia
Kopaczywka-road on the west slope of upper Tworylczyk
Korotyna-field by the farmstead of Zahorody
Korynie-field in Luh below Kiczera
Koszaryszcza-field to the northwest of Siwarnia
Koscdylunok-forest covering the whole eastern slope of Bukowina
Kruhle Berclo-small forest on the northern slope of Siwarnia
Kubylowa-road in the Tworylczyk valley
Kucyniw Pole--on the left slope of upper Tworylczyk
Kuzni Berdo-field west of Krysowa
Kyczera-field and hill east of the Orthodox church
Kyczera-hill between Luh and Duk
Laz-field north of Krysowa
Laz Panskyj --> Panskyj Laz
Leszczyna-field at the upper end of the village on the Wetlinka
Magura-mountain 968 m. (listed on maps as Stola)
Markowe Berdo-a peak of Siwarnia
Medzywerchowanamy-field on the South slope of Siwarnia
Minkowa-field and springs of Tworylczyk
Mikry-field on the Wetlinka in the village's lower part
Mochnacka-field and forest on the northern slope of Kobylskie brook
Nowynka-field at the Lipper end of the village
Nykolyw-farmstead behind Laz
Obszar Szutiakiw --> Szutiakiw Obszar
Okruchlyj -> Kruhle Berdo
Palisziwka-field below the Siwarnia
Panskie Pasiki-meadows below Smerek
Panskyj Laz-field on the southern slope of Siwarnia
Pasiki Kobylanskie -> Kobylaniskie Pasiki
Pasiki Panskie-field on the west slope of Tworylczyk
Pid Berdom-field on the southern slope of Siwarnia
Pid Coprym--field on the west slope of Tworylczyk
Pid Hostynnom --- field on the west slope of the upper Tworylczyk
Pid Kobylany-field cast of Kobylskie
Pid Sady-field in upper Jaworzec
Pid Szarnkie-field on the northern side of the farmstead of Zahorody
Pilce-field on the northern slope of Siwarnia
Pohary-forest and meadows on the slope of Siwarnia
Pohary Serwytu-field and forest on the western slope of Siwarnia
Polanka-field west of Krysowa
Polanka Nuty-field in Luh near Wetlinka
Polanka Skybowa-Skybowa Polanyna
Popiwskij Dil-hill, field northeast of the Orthodox church
Putny-common name of the meadows on the northern slopes of Bukowina, they belonged to Tworylne (the names of each meadow: Czertez, Czaszczowata, Spilnyna, Putny Kownasiw, and Szeroki Putny)
Rostyczky-forest at the upper end of the village
Rozpadyna-slit in the main ridge of Smerek
Serwyt-field below Kiczera in Luh
Skybowa Polonyna-field (listed on the maps as Krysow, 840 m.)
Solyszcza-forest and field on the Wetlinka in the northern part of the village
Stremna-beyond Strybna, forest on the southern slopes of Siwarnia
Suche Berdo-forest on the slope of Siwarnia
Syhalka-border between the Kobylskie and Kindrat brooks
Szerokie-field by the road to the farmstead of Zahorody
Szutiakiw Obszar-field near the Panszczyzniana chapel
Szyja-field northwest of the peak Siwarnia
Szywarna-field northwest of the peak of Siwarnia
Ubocze-fields east of the church
Urbanka-field on the left slope of the upper Tworylczyk valley
Wackiw-field near the old settlement of Zahorody
Wartowyna-land on the Wetlinka in the northern part of the village
Wolosan-fields and forestlands in the northern part of the village
Zalypom-fields to the west of the settled area in Kobylskie
Zarynky-fields in the upper Tworylczyk
Zlomyska-forest in the northwestern portion of the village, on the Wetlinka
Zolobyny-fields on the Wetlinka, south of the settled area.
Bieszczady, Slownik Historyczno-Krajoznawczy, Czesc 2, Gmina Cisna.
By Marcin Gruszcynski, Wojciech Krukar, and Stanislaw Krycinski
Wydawnictwo Stanislaw Krycinski